Citizenship Project Videos


So I spent the guts of last night and today making a screen-cast designed to help students with the process of writing up the ‘Section A’ of their Citizenship Project Report Booklets. It also deals with some common mistakes that I’ve observed with my last four groups that have worked through the process.

As ever, it’s only my own best judgment of what’s happening and how they have been marked, combined with a fair amount of “reverse engineering” of the projects my own students have submitted. Hopefully they’ll be of use to students who are stranded due to Covid-19… All they need is the link and a smart phone for this to work for them… But students’ engagement with the video would definitely be helped by downloading the samples from my students last year that can be found here. (scroll down to the bottom of the page…)

Any and all (constructive) comments and suggestions are most welcome…

Hopefully, in the coming days I’ll be able to put together content to help with the other elements of the project. But bear in mind, they’re very, very time consuming to make!

Keep well and WASH YOUR HANDS…

JD 19/3/20

Pol-Soc Writing and Exam Resources


Just trying to pull together other bits and pieces of resources that might be of use to you and your students. Some I’ve already posted, others are little “one pagers” (I’m a big fan of ‘one-pagers’), that I’ve dug out over the last few days.

For the time being, I’ll leave them on the ‘Key Thinkers Notes’ page, but I’ll put links here also. I’ll figure out the best way to deal with that later!

As always, I’d be happy to hear any (constructive) feedback…

Study Skills for Pol Soc Essays Exam Strategy and Timing


Tips from the Politics and Society Chief Examiner Report 2018


DBQ Long Answer 2020


Paragraph Structure


Dealing with Counter-Arguments
Blank Revision Essay outline


TLDR – Recording your Pol Soc Reading

Keep Well – And Happy St Patrick’s Day…

JD (17/3/2020)

‘Key Thinker’ Notes

This page will evolve rapidly in the coming days, but thus far, see below links to upload the Key Thinker Notes. Please also scroll down for my “Introduction” sheets, that lay out some of the suggested essay titles (drawn from the subject specification), that students case use as a focal point for their study and exam preparation…

Thomas Hobbes John Locke
Robert Nozick Karl Marx
Paulo Freire Sylvia Walby
Fr Sean McDonagh Andre Gunder Frank
Vandana Shiva Kwame Anthony Appiah
Benedict Anderson Samuel Huntington
Kathleen Lynch Martha Nussbaum
Edward Said Thomas Hylland Erisken
Intro to Power and Decision Making Intro to Identity
Intro to Human Rights 1 Intro to Human Rights Bodies & Essays
Citizen Journalism contrasting opinions Intro to Development
Intro to Media and Chomsky Intro to Writing

For some of the material in the Intro to Media and Chomsky I am most grateful to @northmonpolsoc. Thanks Jon!

Study Skills for Pol Soc Essays Exam Strategy and Timing
Tips from the Politics and Society Chief Examiner Report 2018 TLDR – Recording your Pol Soc Reading Upload Version
Paragraph Structure Dealing with Counter-Arguments
Blank Revision Essay outline

Please bear in mind, that I’m ramping up this content as quickly as I can. If you look at the notes and feel that there are any errors that I should be aware of, please do let me know, and I’ll do my best to try and get them fixed and updated. But also bear in mind, I’m only one man, doing my best….

Don’t forget you can test your knowledge for each of these sets of notes by trying the self-correcting Key Thinker Quizzes. Remember, recall is a critical part of all learning!

If you fancy supporting the website with a small donation to help with the cost of the website into the future (and for the copious amounts of coffee needed to make these possible), I’d be most grateful…

Oh, and this disappeared from the site for some reason…? Useful Podcasts for Students and Teachers

Here it is as a ‘Google Doc’ that anyone can add to or edit. I don’t know how to re-format the tables in Google docs, so maybe some kind soul could help with that and save me untold heartache and help us all!  USEFUL PODCASTS GOOGLE DOC.

JD (13/3/2020)


Well, in extraordinary times, we take extraordinary measures. So here’s what I’m up to…

In the next few days I’ll be dramatically expanding the scope of resources that I have available here, for everyone, for free. I’ll be focusing on making sure that all my “Key Thinker Notes” are available to download here in a menu of that name. It’ll take me some time to polish them up to a condition that won’t embarrass me, but I’ll get there eventually. I can’t guarantee that they’re perfect (I’m sure there will be some mistakes, that ye might be good enough to point out to me, so that I can fix them). I’m starting with Benedict Anderson and Andre Gunder Frank, but there’ll be more to follow quickly in the next few days. Rather than bloating your inboxes with updates, I’ll tweet out additional links about uploaded resources on @khpolsoc…

Effectively, they’re ‘student ready’. Circulate them as widely with other teachers or students as you see fit, or ignore them completely.

At the very least, nobody will ever be able to turn around to any of the Pol Soc teachers that I know and say that their students didn’t have enough resources to revise with!

I wish everyone the very best in the coming weeks. It’s going to be a stressful time for everyone. Stay safe, stay sane, stay healthy. And remember, we have always “depended on the kindness of strangers”.

Now, more than ever, we’re all a part of society, not apart from society.

And if, on the off chance, you find these extra resources useful, you might consider making a tiny donation to the site to fund the many, many, many cups of coffee that I anticipate consuming in the next few weeks…



Citizen Journalism – DEB Mock Exam 2020

Just a very quick blog to help some of the students who may have sat the DEB Mock Exam this year. My own students had a mixed reaction to the paper, with some excellent work evident in the booklets, but also with others who struggled to get to grips with certain elements of the paper (particularly timing of their essays, it seems). I think I’m getting a bit better at setting these papers, but with such a small ‘sample size’ to go on (only 2 actual past papers), it’s a real challenge…

I’m a big fan of the “One-Pager” – everything you can get down onto one single revision page. The goal is to include some of the key concepts, some of the key data, and also an opportunity to formulate their “I Sentences” to show the examiner that they can see the impact (or footprint, as I like to call it) of some of the big concepts we examine.

The longer (50 Mark) question in the ‘Data-Based Question’ in the DEB mock paper was on ‘Media Origination’, and ‘Citizen Journalism’ in particular. So below is my ‘one-pager’ on Citizen Journalism to help students to get their head around the topic. I’m also including two newspaper articles on Citizen Journalism that students could try to incorporate into their own revision to help them to form their opinion. One is in favour of CJ, the other against. See where you fit on that spectrum after you’ve had an opportunity to do a bit of reading, research and learning. (For those of you that get really hung up on this kind of stuff, it refers to some of the sub-headings in Learning Outcome 2.6)

Citizen Journalism KH

Citizen Journalism contrasting opinions

I hope the mock results are favourable, but remember, there’s a lot of progress that can be made in the intervening 3 ½ months!

Back to the corrections!



Dealing with “Citizenship Project Part C” – Reflection on Knowledge Gained and Skills Developed

So, this is the final installment in the series of blog posts about the Citizenship Project. Most of the students (hopefully) will have, by this point in the year, completed their actions and written up the majority of the “Part B”. In theory, at least, they also will have had some time to reflect back on the process they have undertaken over the last few months. For others, inevitably, it’ll be a bit of a mad dash to the finish line on the 24th April.

So what I did with the “Citizenship Project Section C Sample” is to pick a different project, where the candidate did a very good, but not a perfect report. The overall mark for Section C was 15/20. If the students can see what the candidate did very well, but also identify some of her minor mistakes, they should be able to help avoid some of those obvious pitfalls themselves.

I’d be asking students to read through the final part of her project and notice the following:

  1. The lack of headings makes it a little difficult for the examiner to see exactly where the marks are supposed to be assigned, particularly in the final section. This is a very easy fix…
  2. While the opening section (Knowledge and Insight) is very strong, it is TOO LONG. Of all the sections, the Section C has the fewest words available. While she does get 6/6 for this section, she pays the price later on by having her ‘Feedback’ and ‘Reflection’ sections squashed into a couple of lines, and certainly not developed enough for two 4/4 answers. The students need to be efficient in their writing and disciplined with their word count, skills that are often pretty thin on the ground.
  3. There are a few spots, like the ‘Skills Developed’ section, where, while the content is strong and focused on the requirements of the question, I’d want maybe one or two bits of specificity. As it reads at the moment, it could apply to virtually any project that any student, anywhere in the country could have written. I always think that the personal touch is best and helps to set your work apart. It also looks like you’ve actually undertaken a deeper personal reflection when you do this…
  4. If you’re a student that really struggles to write efficiently and directly, I’ve included a few sample ‘starter’ sentences that are designed to help you stay really focused on the kinds of things that the SEC seem to want you to focus in on. They’re only suggestions (and there’s obviously multiple ways to address any of this stuff), but they should be a good jumping-off point.

***As with all of the handouts you can download in the Citizenship Project tab of the website (where you can find the other handouts), the suggestions are simply my BEST GUESS as to how the projects have been marked by the SEC. I have no special insights, other than having had three classes go through the process in the last two years and the fact that I’ve spent a fair amount of time trying to reverse engineer how I think that process must have been undertaken. The SEC are also, obviously, free to change the marking scheme year-on-year without telling anyone, which I think it hard on students, but that’s life… So with those CAVEATS in mind, I hope that you find the handout useful in preparing the final drafts of your projects.***

I’ve always thought that the biggest problem that students face is not knowing exactly what the expectations around the standard of writing in the Report Booklet actually are. Hopefully, this final handout, and the ones that have gone before, will help to alleviate at least some of that anxiety!

Best of luck with your submissions!!!!


The Difficult Answer to a Simple Question…

The question I have been asked most frequently by my own students is simply this:

How do I improve the mark in my exam essays?”

This is a fair question, with which students perennially struggle, but one whose asking seems to have increased in frequency in recent years in both my Pol-Soc and History classes. As someone who taught English at JC and LC for many years, I can’t help wondering how much this is linked to the fact that the new Junior Cycle doesn’t require English students to write any kind of extended essay, discursive or narrative? A question for another day, perhaps…

Well anecdotally at least, in the absence of that key skill, students seem to be arriving in to fifth year Pol-Soc class with lower levels of writing skills that we must nonetheless address. So over the holidays I tried to put together a one-page guide (God, I love trying to fit it onto one page!) to an incremental process designed to help students make gradual improvement in their discursive essay writing. Of course, there’s no substitute for content knowledge (which this takes as a pre-requisite), but I can’t tell you how often I’ve seen good students under-perform in exams because of poor time-management, rather than because of a lack of knowledge (and reciprocally, average students who have gotten to grips with this process, out-performing their seemingly abler classmates).

Similarly, students often fail to take the basics of ‘exam conditions’ into account. They fail to practice writing essays without the crutch of their notes for support, or fail to realize that they should find a neat, light pen (blue or black) that doesn’t require them to put too much pressure on their writing hand, that they use exclusively from Christmas in Sixth Year until the end of the exams (buying 20-30 of them so as to never worry about running out!). They wouldn’t use a brand new type of football boot at the start of a county final, so why should they do it during the most consequential minutes of writing they’ll do in the early part of their adult lives?????

Anyway, take a look at the one-page guide here: Study Skills for Pol Soc Essays, and if you have any suggested ways to improve upon it, I’m all ears (which is, unfortunately, both literally and metaphorically the case…). How I’ve explained this process to my own students is to remind them how they learned to ride their bikes. First they started off with all the necessary supports – a parent to hand, all the elbow and knee pads that money can buy, 2 stabilizers, smooth flat ground… Gradually, each support is removed so that the process no longer feels so daunting and insurmountable. Essay writing is actually just like that. (P.S. If you missed my post on suggested exam timing and exam strategy, you can find it here.)

The process requires students to make a brutally honest self-evaluation at the start so that they can identify what areas in the process they need to address most urgently in order to make maximum progress. We can’t help with the honesty bit, unfortunately!

Best of luck in the run up to the mocks (and if anyone is using the DEB paper, I’d be similarly interested in any constructive feedback that people might have about the exam).

And remember, as Ernest Hemingway said, writing is easy, “All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed.” Hard things are hard, but if you chip away at it, it gets ever so slightly less difficult in an exam setting…



Dealing with L.O. 2.5 – “To what extent does the Irish Political System Represent the ‘Will of the People’?”

Initially, I found this area of the course to be potentially impossibly broad, never knowing ‘how much was enough’. So I decided to take a specific tack which I’ve developed over the last 3 year groups. Here it is:

While this is one of the areas of the course that is relatively mechanical in terms of gathering relevant data (from sources like it is a really good example of trying to translate information into opinion. Two or three different students can legitimately find themselves forming opposing, but equally valid, opinions about how the systems of elections or governmental structures can work. Having covered a lot of introductory material on key thinkers at the start of fifth year, I find this topic an excellent way to introduce/develop group work where students are supporting each other (and where I get to take a back seat!). It’s a shift in gear that the students respond well to (touch wood).

I’m not saying that this is the only way to approach the topic, but here’s how I go about doing it. I waited until the recent by-election in Dublin Mid-West – our constituency – to do it, so that students could follow election events in relative real time. That won’t be possible every time, obviously, but there’s nearly always some kind of election happening somewhere in the world that you can piggy back on!

  1. Download and print (2-sided if possible) the relevant worksheet and follow the process I outline below. I have a PDF( To what extent does the Irish Political System Represent the ‘Will of the People’) that will print easily, and a MS Word version( To what extent does the Irish Political System Represent the ‘Will of the People’)that you can adapt to suit your purposes….
  2. Break students into groups of 4.
  3. Ask them to divide the topics for research and discussion amongst themselves. For the sake of simplicity, I ask them to choose one area from each side of the page (this will make the feedback process easier for them, trust me, it was a disaster first time I tried it!) Each student, therefore, has two topics to investigate in detail.
  4. Depending on the overall class ability, give them 4-5 class period/days to undertake their research.
  5. They report back to their group and disseminate their findings so that every student has all 8 categories complete on their sheet, and where each has had the experience of being the ‘expert’ on at least 2 topics (and can contribute on the others). If issues are a bit problematic, or multiple students are struggling with aspects of the research, there’s no harm to do a bit of ‘direct instruction’ – the auld “Chalk and Talk” if you will…
  6. Introduce the Idea of ‘Preponderance of Evidence’ – i.e. do you have more information in the “Represents the people well” category or the “Represents the people poorly” category? If you have 5 arguments for and 2 against, do you think that makes “For” a viable argument?
  7. When they’ve completed their sheet, they might end up looking something like this:


  1. Introduce the idea of ‘Weighting’ their opinions. Are all arguments equally valid? I then tell a made-up anecdote about how well my weekend went: 3 good things (dinner with my wife in Nandos (Classy guy), watched a football match with my son, won 25 quid on a lotto ticket) and 1 bad thing (my best friend died – not really!) are these events equal in ‘weight’? Did I, overall, have a good weekend? This helps the student to see that volume of information is not the same as quality of information.
  2. Ask them to weight their opinions in each category with this new insight.
  3. Now, to form an overall opinion, they must decide whether the ‘preponderance of the (weighted) evidence’ across all categories helps them to answer the question positively or negatively.
  4. To present a “Critical Evaluation” (where they make a clear argument, but also offer at least some balance) the students then:
  5. Take a position on the topic (i.e. Answer the Question directly up front)
  6. Select the 3 arguments/topics that best support their position (each of which will be developed into a clear paragraph)
  7. Select the ‘weakest’ of the counter-arguments that they can easily debunk (forming their ‘counter-narrative’ paragraph)
  8. Sketch an outline introduction and conclusion (where they offer suggestions for reform, or indicate other systems/countries which could be emulated to improve the Irish system)

Having undergone this process, you then ask students to write their response in the form of a ‘Critical Essay’ as they might be asked to do in the exam. Alternatively, you could give it as an actual exam question – it’s really up to you to decide what you think is the most useful way…

The last little grenade that I throw into the mix is to ask them “Is there actually such a thing as ‘the will of the people’?” How can such a diverse group of people be described as having a ‘singular’ view of the world or society? Are there times when there will be a broad consensus (what are they), and time when there’s be a massive divergence of opinion (what might those look like)? Is a discussion of the terms/terminology of the question, where you challenge the very premise of the question something that is appropriate to the introduction and/or conclusion of the essay? Should they avoid that argument altogether?

This tends to mess with their heads a little bit, but it seems to me that this is exactly the kind of outcome I’d want with a topic like this… then again, maybe I’m just a sadist!

Best of luck, and hopefully you’ll get a class full of essays that deal with different issues, but in an equally rigorous and critical manner.




Citizenship Project – ‘Section B’

Hi All,

I’ve been totally swamped with work in the last few weeks, so I haven’t been able to get the next podcast edited. I’m doing my best, but I’m only one guy…

In the meantime, you can have a look at this breakdown of how a student could go about approaching the second part of the project with this resource: Citizenship Project Section B Handout. I’ve broken it down section by section and tried to ‘reverse engineer’ how I think the marking scheme must have been applied. Obviously, I’m open to correction on this, but it might help bring at least some sense of what’s expected of the students. Maybe this helps the teachers more than the students, but lots of people contacted me to ask for a follow up to the Section A Annotated handout that I posted a few weeks ago, so here you go…

The big difference between how I approached this task, compared with the Section A example that I gave previously, is that I’ve deliberately chosen work that was deemed to be of a H2 standard, and have tried to indicate how I think it could be improved upon in a number of different areas to hit the H1 overall. At least that way, the students might be able to use the handout to see how to improve their own work from a lower to a higher grade… you know… learning and stuff….

As always, it’s just my best guess, and I’d be only too happy if the SEC wanted to give us ANY sense of how they had marked it, but I’m not holding my breath on that one!

Anyway, hope it’ll be of use to at least some of you.