Indian Farmer Protests – ‘Flexible’ data and case studies for exam prep!

It’s always tricky to know how ‘topical’ we should be in a Politics and Society classroom. I always try and balance 3 perspectives – Theoretical, Global & National, and Personal. It can be exhausting as a Pol Soc teacher when you feel like you have to keep up with every bit of news that’s happening around the world, just on the off chance that a student asks you about it and you’re afraid that you’ll look like you don’t know what’s going on. Therein lies the path to ‘burnout’ (trust me on this one…)

The result of this, as a Pol Soc teacher, is that I’m always on the lookout for events that link in directly with ‘Key Thinker Ideas’. In particular, I’m constantly looking out for stories that seem like they can fit in with multiple different strands of the course. Well, the ongoing Indian Farmer Protests are just such a story. It’s got Vandana Shiva written all over it (and she has said a lot about it), but it also touches on parts of the course like ‘Civil Disobedience and Right to Protest’, ‘Global versus Local’, ‘Development Institutions – IMF & World Bank’, Left- and Right-wing perspectives on policy, ‘Sustainable Development’, ‘Social Class and Unionization’, Traditional and Social Media, and many, many more.

Here’s the handout in PDF and MS Word format, so that you can tinker with it to your heart’s content…

Indian Farmer Protests Feb 2021 – PDF

Indian Farmer Protests Feb 2021 – MS Word

So, I put together this handout that tries to walk students through these events (who may have never heard of many aspects of this particular story before) in a way that tries to help them form links between those different aspects of the course. To do that, I took an article from Marie-Claire Magazine, not what you’d think of as one of the big centres of ‘investigative’ journalism. The fact that such a story is even printed in a magazine that describes itself as “the site that women turn to for information on fashion, style, hairstyles, beauty, women’s issues, careers, health, and relationships” should be an interesting way to get this process started with a class of students. The article also draws in from a wide variety of other news sources from the New York Times, to The BBC and Guardian, to Al Jazeera  (I’ve left the links live so students can dig into the source material). The last section of the handout is some tweets from Shiva herself about the issues in the protests, and also some ‘fodder’ material from the various Navdanya blogs (2019 and 2021) about the protests, so that students have something a little more background and weighty material to directly to quote from in their exam… (Think about how engaging it would be for a student to be able to say “I came across this article in Marie-Claire, but then wanted to dig into a few more reliable sources, so I.….”

The handout includes a set of boxes to try and get students to ‘draw out’ the different kinds of essays that this material might be able to adapted to fit. They can’t learn everything off, but there should be a bunch of multi-faceted stories, like this one, that students can do detailed investigations of and gather sufficient details to get to the 20/20 range in their essay marking scheme! (very exam-focused, I know, but that’s the nature of the beast…)

Learning Outcome 2.2 – Selecting an Executive

Don’t worry, there are handouts below!

One of the difficulties that teachers face when it comes to teaching the new ‘Subject Specification’ is that it can be very difficult to work out from reading the ‘Spec’ how deeply we should dive into each sub-heading. Despite having an SEC ‘Sample Paper’ and a couple of past exams to go on, I’m still none the wise in this regard. Some areas are pretty straight forward, but Learning Outcome 2.2 is an example of where it’s almost impossible to tell the depth of study that’s required. Is it designed so they can ask 4 potential short questions for the ‘Ireland’, ‘Northern Ireland’, ‘European Commission’, and ‘Non-Democratic States’, or are students supposed to be able to combine those sub-sections into a broader essay on the powers of the Executive Branch??? (see the full L.O from the spec at the bottom of the page)

Your guess is as good as mine. In previous years, I’ve just touched on the idea as I’ve worked my way through each of the different forms of government. This year, however, I’ve decided to teach it more explicitly. In part this is because it’s a relatively straight-forward part of the course with specific ‘deliverable’ facts that I can communicate clearly in an online classroom. The other reason, is that I want students to be able to incorporate this information into their LO 2.5 Essays (To what extent does the Irish System of Government reflect the ‘will of the people’?). How the Taoiseach and Cabinet are chosen would, surely, be considered relevant to this topic??? Wouldn’t it???

My guess is that for a H1 in one of those essays, students would be expected to engage with the ‘Strengths and Weaknesses’ of the different system to show a critical evaluation of the process in each country. To show a personal engagement, students could also be encouraged to think about possible reforms that they could suggest to improve how our (or another country’s) executive branch is chosen.

So, as is my wont, I made up a ‘classroom-ready’ handout (below) that I include here as a pdf and MS Word Document (so that you can adapt it to your own needs). I’m always afraid that I’m ‘over teaching’ certain aspects of the course, so if you want to refine this handout down to its core elements, be my guest.

Selecting an Executive pdf

Selecting an Executive MS Word

So basically, I broke down the 4 areas naed in the spec and added the perspective of the US President because it’s a fairly topical issue right now and the student can use it as a comparative/alternative perspective for lots of different types of essay (governmental or electoral systems). I also chose the ‘Vatican’ as an example of a ‘Non-Democratic’ Executive, which is specifically done to provoke a bit of debate and to tease out the point at which something might be considered to tip over the line between democratic and non-democratic. It also gives a chance to differentiate between an ‘electorate’ and a ‘selectorate’ (which could also apply to how leaders of Irish political parties or primary candidates in America are chosen).

What I intend to do next week is to try and use ‘break out rooms’ with 5 students in each and get one student to become an expert on each area and then present their newly found expertise to the rest of the group. In order to make sure that they’re engaging with each other they’ll have to attempt with the last part of the handout, which is an exercise that tries to give students an opportunity to practice a ‘short-question’ style of answer.

The final way that I’ll check in on the students’ leaning will be a digital quiz. I’ve also done up a self-correcting Google Forms quiz that is tailored specifically to go along with this handout. It adds up to 100 marks, so should be easy to incorporate into a scheme of work. I’ll eventually add it to the ‘Key Thinker Quizzes page’.

What??? You mean this ISN’T how you spend your Friday nights?

Best of luck next week in your Lockdown Teaching. It’s tough going, but hopefully this might make it a tiny bit easier…


JD 22/1/2021

P.S. A special thanks to Dr Paddy Mulroe of Our Lady’s Secondary School – Castleblayney, Co.Monaghan for casting his ‘expert eye’ over an early draft of this document. His input, corrections, and suggestions greatly appreciated…! (@PaddyMulroe on Twitter. If you’re not following him, you should be…)

Episode 11 – The Irish Constitution is Live!

Just in time for the dreaded return to ‘Remote Learning’, the episode is finalized and ready!

In this week’s episode, Jerome is joined by three guests: Dr Jennifer Kavanagh of Waterford Institute of Technology, Sean Garvey of the Referendum Commission, and Eoin Ó Broin, Sinn Féin TD for Dublin Mid-West.

They discuss the background to, the workings of, and some of the possible future changes that might be expected to the 1937 Irish Constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann. The role of the Referendum Commission is explained to students, and Deputy Ó Broin’s proposal to include the Right to Housing in the Constitution is examined as a case study.

A huge thank you to our participants this week, who gave so generously of their time during a chaotic Christmas period, in order to make students’ lives just that little bit easier!

Listen to the Episode here:

As ever, the ‘Listen-Along Guide’ and numerous additional resources can be found on the ‘Episode Notes’ page for this episode at

If you would like to support this project, or have any further questions or queries, please don’t hesitate to get in touch by visiting our Contact and Support page:

I hope you find the episode useful in the run up to the Mock exams.

JD 11/1/2021

Transition Year Politics and Society ‘Taster’ Modules

Two options here that I’ve used, depending on the context. The first is a ‘Media’ module that will be based around my recently published student booklet (here), the second around some other key concepts that are relatively easy to work in a digital environment.

I’m including both an MS Word and PDF format version of the documents for the second option so that teachers can easily adapt the contents for their own needs. Please remember, nothing here is designed to be prescriptive. These are only suggestions and my goal in presenting them here is to make a potentially chaotic return to online teaching a little bit less daunting and difficult.

TY Politics & Society 8 Week Taster Module (pdf)

TY Politics & Society 8 Week Taster Module (MS Word)

This is based upon an 8-week module, 3 periods per week (one ‘single’ and one ‘double’). It aims to give students some insight into what studying Politics & Society at Leaving Cert level might be like. It hopes to facilitate students to investigate valuable material that will (hopefully) be interesting and have contemporary relevance, while also being of some use for students who will not be pursuing the subject at a later date. The course is also structured so that more motivated students, or classes, that move through the material more quickly will have plenty of ‘extension exercises’ to allow them to engage with key concepts more fully. It can’t cover everything, and doesn’t try to…

The overall goal is to introduce the subject structure in general and then engage in four main areas of study (Human Rights, Children’s Rights, Civil Disobedience, and the Use of Violence against Undemocratic States) in sufficient detail as to making the experience worthwhile and illustrate to students where they could further engage with the course ideas, beyond just the materials covered in online class. It integrates materials already available on and introduces a number of new resources that I’ve tested in (on-site) class this term. Obviously, if you don’t have a TY ‘taster’ module, these materials should also be useful for 5th years who are already studying the content. I hope you find them useful. Please remember, that nothing here is designed to be prescriptive and should be adapted to meet your needs and the needs of your students. I know, from a personal perspective, that if one of my classes became particularly interested in one specific topic covered in the course, then I’d be more than happy to do a ‘deeper dive’ into that area at the expense of some other aspects of the course. I think that’s the way the subject should work, particularly while the dreaded LC exam is still far off in the distance

P.S. The ‘Google Form’ assessments (linked in the document) “should be” set up to be ‘self-correcting’ and give instant feedback, but individual teachers might want to adapt them to their own purposes (I always like to add in a short paragraph answer to get bit more engagement and insight, but I sure as heck won’t be marking them for ye all!), so feel free to make a copy of the quiz and adapt it as you see fit!

Best of luck in the inevitably chaotic weeks ahead and please all, keep safe and distant!

JD 05/05/2021

(if you missed my recent post on Sylvia Walby and the Patriarchy, you can find it here:

Sylvia Walby and Patriarchy

I finally got around to doing up proper ‘Sylvia Walby Notes’. It only took me four and a half years… There are two things to be aware of here… Firstly, I’d welcome any feedback on the notes as I found it particularly difficult (bearing in mind that they are focussed not on being a full history of Feminism, but rather a means to address the spec question as to whether Ireland is a Patriarchy or not?). Secondly, the third page looks like it’s accidentally empty, but is intentionally so. Let me explain…

Here’s what I do with my own students (often using lots of group work, but in a more limited way in Covid-world obviously). I start off the week doing a little bit of work on how ‘Deductive Reasoning’ works (I found this video a useful summary: I then move on to a brief history of Feminism to put events into context. Once students have a grip on the historical (and geographic) variations within the different ‘waves’ of feminism, I dive into the whole “Public” and “Private” Patriarchy idea.

When the students have engaged with how the public and private patriarchies might be seen (or not!) in their own lives, I introduce the ‘Six Structures’ of Patriarchy that Walby outlines in Theorizing Patriarchy. Once we have given due consideration to the various elements of the different components, I ask whether BASED ON THIS DEFINTION OF PATRIARCHY Ireland could be categorized as a patriarchy. My initial goal is to get a sense of what the students’ gut reactions would be, then I follow it up by introducing an ‘evidence-gathering exercise’ where I break the class into groups and set each group the task of doing a detailed ‘deep dive’ into just ONE of the areas. Their goal is to gather 4-5 pieces of key data in their category, with sources clearly identified and 2 or 3 of those sources being evaluated in terms of their reliability, contemporary relevance, verifiability and so on.

Once the group has gathered their data, I ask them to ‘Prioritize’ their ‘qual’ and ‘quant’ data and rank the information in terms of how well it addresses the specific terms of the Spec’s requirements. They often have trouble with this, but I’ve seen some really interesting debates emerge in class on the back of this aspect of the student’s investigations!

Then comes the feedback section where each group presents its findings and note down the findings of the other five groups. (This could easily be done by a google doc, but I prefer to do it orally). I usually distributed an enlarged A3 version of the third page to make this a little easier to do. The students then have to return to the ‘deductive reasoning’ model and make their final assessment as to whether Ireland is a Patriarchy. If they are struggling to come to a judgment, I often present a range of options: 1. Yes, it’s a full patriarchy; 2. No, it isn’t a patriarchy; 3. It is largely a patriarchy; 4. It was once very patriarchal, but has made significant progress (you get the idea…)

Finally, I ask them to consider how they would frame their conclusions. In this instance, I ask them to focus back on the areas they spent time researching in detail and suggest which policy/policies might be most useful in terms of reducing the “domination, oppression, and exploitation” of women in our societies (yes, I’m overtly trying to get them to re-engage with Walby’s definition at the end!) and suggest how this could be achieved. If time allows, I ask the students to share their policy conclusions with each other in the same way as they did with their data. Depending on the time of the year that I’m covering this topic, I might also point students to SDG 5 and/or CEDAW, but this might be something that I come back to later when I’m covering those specific topics, though this will also depend on how engaged and enthusiastic each individual group is with the material… Once I’ve finished doing Kathleen Lynch, we return to the specific essay title and the students draft their own essay for a more formal assessment (I’ve told them about this in advance!)

Anyway, as always, none of this is designed to be seen a prescriptive, and obviously should be used at your discretion, but it might at least give some ideas to teachers as to how this topic could be covered. And again, I would really welcome any ‘constructive’ feedback on the handout. It’s one that I really struggled with.

Obviously, I’d love to hear how other teachers end up engaging with the patriarchy question and would love to learn about other, more successful approaches.

Happy New Year and good-bloody-riddance to 2020…

JD 30/12/2020

Episode 10 “Children’s Rights and Policies” is Live!

Many thanks to the contributors to this week’s contributors – The Ombudsman for Children Dr. Niall Muldoon; DCU student Holly Farrell; and the Minister for Children, Equality, Disability, Integration and Youth, Roderic O’Gorman TD.

Listen to the episode here:

All of the additional resources, such as the Listen-Along Guide, Case-Study Materials, links to our “Children’s Rights Essay Screencast”, and other relevant sites and resources can be found here:

As always, if you want to support the podcast and help with the upkeep of the site, please consider doing so here:


JD 15/11/2020

Pol-Soc Podcast “Log Tables”

I’ve noticed it a lot recently, but only in a way that confirmed my previously held belief, that Pol-Soc students really struggle to negotiate the process of ‘gathering and analyzing‘ data, as the subject specification suggests they do. This, I suspect, is partly because I’ve never had to teach this kind of data gathering before and partly because no other subject on the Leaving Cert asks students to do anything like this (as far as I can see). With the newly enforced Covid-19 restrictions, the kind of group work that I had been doing to let students gather, analyze, compare, and evaluate data seems to have gone out the window. So I’ve really been struggling to do this effectively in a classroom context…

Having partially anticipated this difficulty over the summer, I began a long-term project, that some of the Cohort 1 teachers had discussed at different stages (over a quiet beverage in the Killeshin Hotel…!) – trying to create a set of “Pol-Soc Log Tables” that would at least give students a bit of a start on the process. I think they call it ‘scaffolding‘ in the many education books that are (only slightly perused) on my shelf at home. It won’t (by any stretch of the imagination) be comprehensive, but should model the kind of process that we’re hoping that students will begin to gain at least some mastery of during their two years of LC Pol-Soc.

I decided to focus almost exclusively on the various Index-Rankings that we see these days, some of which are a little problematic at times, but some of which (at least) are useful starting points for exploring different topics on the course. I include a summary page at the start with “Headline Data” that might make it a little easier for students who struggle in this area to get their heads around. In that table, I give the Index Name and year, Ireland’s position in the Index, and contextualize that by giving the top and bottom 3 or 4 countries in each category. What follows in the next 20-ish pages is A brief summary of each index, how it works, some of the methodologies/maps/graphs that often accompany these Indices, and a box for students to complete that helps them to make the link between the Index and (most importantly) the kinds of essay titles to which those data best apply. That’ll take some work on the part of the student, but is (I hope) where this serves as a scaffolding exercise, rather than just a spoon feeding extravaganza…

Anyway, this is still in draft form, and I’m sure there’ll be some typos and mistakes, but I just can’t find any more time to devote to it. So, I give you, in its interim format, the…

PolSocPodcast Log Tables 2020-21

Ideally, I’ll return to these every year or two to update them, but if you knew the hours that have gone into this process already, you’d forgive me for my apprehension at this prospect!

The final thing to note is that nobody really knows what providing “up-to-date” info really means. I’ve basically said to my students that in my head, this means being within 2-3 years of the exam (or basically at any point after they started studying Pol-Soc in 4th or 5th year in school). But that’s just my best guess.

And my final CAVEAT… There really is no substitute for students digging into reports and reliable data for themselves. That’s where they solve the big problem of being able to anticipate some of the issues that they may come across in an unseen Data-Based Question themselves and recognize trends within those data. But for the moment, if I can just get my own students through this stuff, I’ll be reasonably happy!

I hope it’s useful, and if (as usual) you want to support the website, then please consider making a small donation on the Contact and Support page here:

JD 10/11/20

Pol Soc in the Covid Classroom

So… I was asked by PASTAI (the Politics and Society Teachers’ Association of Ireland) to do a short presentation at the upcoming National Conference about adapting the (otherwise very expansive and progressive) methodologies we normally use for a more restricted Pol Soc classroom in the times of Covid-19. So I’ll be gathering my thoughts in the coming weeks so as not to actively embarrass myself in front of people I only get the chance to interact with on twitter these days. Hopefully I’ll not end up sounding like a Luddite, or wasting people’s time…

One of the areas that I’ve found myself relying on these days is more dependence on ‘direct instruction’ (not necessarily a bad thing) and a greater emphasis on ‘guided reading’ (which I think I’ll definitely be doing more of in the future – see the picture below for more on guided reading – from Simon Beale @spbeale on twitter). I need to do more research on reading on the best way to present that material, but I’ll stick with what I have until I figure out a better way to do it. (I now know that I should really narrow my margins to make more room for both note taking and guidance, but that’s something you can do for yourself… I use my TLDR sheets for that process)

The problem with both of these things is finding appropriate resources that are tailored to the classroom. While “Pol Soc Twitter” is a vibrant and inclusive community, where relevant articles and ideas are circulated in a spirit of generosity, the problem remains that those articles aren’t necessarily ‘classroom ready’, and take quite a bit of time to adapt, edit, and develop questions that students will find useful. This is particularly the case because in previous years you could fairly reliably just ‘talk the students through’ the article and do oral feedback on their responses (either as individuals or from a group discussion). But now that many students (and teachers) are necessarily absent because of waiting for a Covid test result in their family, or because they are being suitably cautious with minor symptoms, the students need to be able to work through some of the materials at home under their own steam in a more tightly ‘scaffolded’ manner.

So, one of the things I’ve been trying to do is put together old style ‘comprehension’ texts with questions that are accessible and will prepare students for the kind of questions they will encounter when they go to the full DBQ-style questions (particularly as an intro to this process for new 5th year students). So here are a few of those comprehensions that I’ve developed for that purpose. With the usual caveat that they’re just my best effort, they might help students to engage with the key thinkers in a modern context. I’ll include them as PDFs that are ready to go for a class and MS Word files that you can adapt for your own needs. (Some of them might be a bit long for an exam context, for example…) I’ll add more as I go, but will also archive them on the Data-Based Question page. Let me know if the links don’t work, as I don’t have a great track record with that!

I’d say the basic principle behind all of this is that I’d rather have a good resource (80-85%) that’s pretty much ready to go than an amazing one (95-100%) that’ll take me an hour to adapt and format. Who has that kind of time during Covid-19!!!!

MS Word Version:

MS Word Version:

MS Word Version:

MS Word Version:

The Leaving Cert English “Exam Essay”

(My usual Politics & Society readers might permit me another brief deviation from the ‘usual programming’ into the realms of an English Teacher, but will hopefully find the contents of this post useful and relatively ‘transferable’ between the two subjects…)

The following represents approximately a career and a half of thoughts, struggles, insecurity, advice, and hard-won wisdom on writing the Leaving Certificate “English Exam Essay”. It is presented here in ‘pdf format’ to preserve the layout of the original draft and to make it useful to teachers in class, who might now successfully disguise its invaluable advice as a usable ‘Paper 1’ comprehension exercise! You can read below about the origin of the piece as best as I can recount it, but if like most teachers you’re just trying to survive until the bell rings at 4 pm, just read the article itself here…

My “Da” (to borrow a title from Hugh Leonard) was a pre-eminent English teacher in secondary schools like “Joey’s” in Fairview, the Institute of Education on Leeson St., and Glenstal Abbey in Limerick. He shifted mid-career to third level education, teaching a generation of appreciative trainee teachers in Mater Dei Institute of Education. Throughout this time, he funded our family’s summer holidays by working as a ‘Senior Examiner’ of Leaving Cert English, drafting and submitting questions, correcting exams, and supervising the marking of other examiners. He edited a literary newspaper, wrote reviews and textbooks, and even a screenplay that was bought, but now gathers dust on a producer’s shelf. He was this and so much more, that I will deliberately omit here.

Many moons ago, he decided to try and distil what he had learned about the process of writing a single exam essay into as short a piece of writing as possible. Unsurprisingly, he achieved his task and produced a readable ‘one-page’ guide promoting what he called an ‘interrogative’ method for planning and executing the essay under exam conditions. Many times over the years (as both a student and a teacher) I have reflected upon this refined wisdom, leaned on its technique, and disseminated the suggestions to anyone who asked, or who was in need of guidance.

The overwhelming majority of what he wrote then remains broadly applicable today. The problem emerged, however, that with the changes to the LC English syllabus between my own sitting of the exam in the 1990s and stepping in front of my first class as a teacher a decade later, the exam’s structure changed – not unrecognizably – but sufficiently to render some of his advice if not quite redundant, then at least in need of spritzing up! So I have spritzed. I have added my own modest thoughts to his basic structure and reframed the still recognizable spine of the original advice with a view to reflecting some of those curricular reforms in a manner that might be more ‘relatable’ (although I hate the term with a passion) to teachers and students familiar only with the current system.

I am not possessed of, nor ever will I achieve, the mastery of English teaching that my Da demonstrated with such fluency and élan. I’m a “Jack of all trades”, teaching Leaving Cert English, History, and more recently Politics & Society. But what all of those subjects have in common is the centrality of the ‘key skill’ of essay writing, in whatever guise it is required in the different exams, so I hope that my addenda will be based on at least some degree of valid insight and experience.

My Da died at 3 am on the morning of the 6 June, 2007, the morning my first ever Leaving Cert English Class were due to sit their English exam. This piece represents a far more literal interpretation of the term ‘ghost writing’ than the comprehension text that appeared on Paper 1 of the exam the previous year, but I endeavour to carry the baton and pass it on with the same generosity of spirit that my Da always exemplified. It is both fitting and patently obvious to acknowledge that where this piece is strong, it is my Da’s input and where it feels weaker, my fingerprints will be more evident.

This piece neither professes nor pretends to be the definitive account of undertaking the Herculean task of guiding students through the process of essay writing, but is presented in the spirit of stimulating thoughts and discussion amongst receptive colleagues. I trust that it will be received as such. I will, inevitably, only identify the spelling errors when I click ‘publish’ on the post…

Nonetheless, I hope that you find it a useful and practical way in which to engage with the teaching of the ‘Exam Essay’ and that it makes everyone’s lives that little easier in these uncertain times…

JD – 25/9/2020

If you’re a LC English teacher visiting this site for the first time my recent post with a digitized version of Philadelphia, Here I Come! (for the ‘Comparative’ question) might be of use…

If you found this useful and would like to make a small donation to the upkeep of this site, please consider doing so here.

Episode 9 is LIVE!

After a bit of a Covid-related hiatus, and with many, many apologies for the delay Professor Graham Finaly from UCD’s School of Politics and International Relations, we’re back with Episode 9, dealing with key thinker John Locke. In some ways this should be 2 shorter episodes, because Professor Graham Finlay covered so much ground in his discussion that I found it very hard to leaving anything on the virtual cutting room floor. But I’m trusting that students will know when to pause to catch their breath. As always, there’s a full suite of resources available on the Episode Notes Page to help students get to grips with this material.

Listen to the episode HERE! Or download it on iTunes, Stitcher, or wherever you get your podcasts.

If you find the materials useful, please consider making a small donating to the upkeep of the site, by visiting our Contact and Support page.

Hopefully, the episode will do at least something to take the edge off the stress of starting back into school after a prolonged break.

To all the Pol-Soc students and teachers out there, best of luck with the return, as daunting as it might be.

All my very best,